National and multilateral banks that support the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency:
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) plays an important role in leading the region on a green growth path through financing and innovative technologies. From 2011 to 2014, ADB approved over USD 13 billion in climate financing, with USD 12.6 billion in loans, grants, guarantees and equity investments and USD 438 million in technical assistance. Its own resources equalled USD 11.2 billion, while external resources contributed a little over USD 2.0 billion. Through mechanisms such as the Climate Investment Funds, multilateral development banks have mobilized USD 6.5 billion for climate action in developing countries, with USD 2.5 billion earmarked for Asia and the Pacific.
The African Development Bank promotes climate-resilient and low-carbon development within African countries. Its Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) puts in place activities designed to achieve climate-related objectives and mobilize resources at scale. The bank has made a commitment to invest USD 9.6 billion between 2011 and 2015 to finance its CCAP activities. Having made investments of USD 5.2 billion between 2011 and 2013, it is on target to meet, if not surpass, that commitment, with an increasing number of climate-smart investments.
The Banco de Desarollo de America Latina (CAF) provides financing support for energy efficiency (EE) to urban communities in the region as well as integrated technical assistance support. Specifically, CAF works with governments on formulating policies, strengthening institutions and building capacity. The support enables sovereign borrowers to overcome barriers, including a lack of finance guarantees and credit rating, poor governance, weak institutions, low technical capacity and a lack of information. Examples of projects include pre-feasibility studies to introduce deep seawater air conditioning systems in coastal areas (<http://www.caf.com/>).
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) under the Sustainable Energy Initiative supports EE- and climate-related activities through: technical assistance (energy audits, feasibility studies, project implementation, etc.); incentives and grants; market rate and concessional financing; and enabling policies and regulations. Thus far, EBRD has invested EUR 950 million in EE or buildings since 2006 and intermediated the financing of 83,000 buildings through 107 local finance institutions in 20 countries (<http://www.ebrd.com/home>).
The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund (GEEREF) was established in 2009 by the European Investment Bank (EIB) with initial funding from the European Union and the Governments of Germany and Norway. GEEREF provides funding for privately managed renewable energy (RE) and EE funds at the regional and global levels. Through this effort, the fund’s country teams invest in commercially sustainable projects supported by public–private partnerships with domestic and international public and private financiers. EIB provides support to attract private capital by reviewing and providing input to the fund’s strategies, including legal input, technical assistance to the country teams and fund managers, and fundraising. (<http://geeref.com/>)
The Inter-American Development Bank has two programmes that are of particular relevance to EE in urban environments: (1) the Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative, which works with cities on integrated approaches to environmental sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, fiscal sustainability and good governance; and (2) the Regional Environmentally Sustainable Transport Strategic Area, which works with cities in Latin America and the Caribbean (<http://www.iadb.org/>)
The Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) development bank is a German bank that provides grants, loans and technical assistance to developing countries to support the procurement of EE, RE and energy access projects. KfW also offers credit lines for investment in EE by local financing institutions in buildings and other EE projects (<https://www.kfw-entwicklungsbank.de/International-financing/KfWDevelopment-Bank/Topics/Energy/>)
The World Bank supports clean energy development around the world through various programmes and initiatives. Key efforts include Readiness for Investment in Sustainable Energy, which sets out RE investment climate indicators to compare countries globally. As another notable example, the World Bank supports scaled-up finance and risk mitigation for RE projects, such as political risk insurance guarantees through the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (<http://www.worldbank.org/>)
International organizations, initiatives & focusing on crosscutting actions in the energy sector:
The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM), through a global forum, brings together countries and institutions to support effective clean energy policy development and share good practices and lessons learned based on experience (<http://www.cleanenergyministerial.org/>);
The Clean Energy Solutions Center is an initiative of CEM, supporting renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) policy design and development around the world. It provides a no-cost ‘ask an expert’ service to support effective policymaking, as well as policy training, webinars, briefs and analysis (<https://cleanenergysolutions.org/>);
CEM also facilitates the International Smart Grid Assistance Network, which provides a forum for countries and institutions to share lessons learned and good practices related to smart technologies and measures (<http://www.iea-isgan.org/>);
The International Energy Agency (IEA) works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its member countries and beyond. Through the Renewable Energy Division at the Secretariat and the Implementing Agreements on RE technologies (IEA-Photovoltaics power system programme, IEA-Wind, IEA-Bioenergy, etc.) and policies (IEA-Renewable energy technology deployment), it supports the further development of RE technologies, markets and policies and the dissemination of experience and expertise (<http://www.iea.org/>);
The Low Carbon Finance Group, Chatham House, bringing together private and public finance leaders from around the world, supports policymakers in catalysing investment (debt, equity and various funding mechanisms) in RE and other low-carbon projects and initiatives (<www.chathamhouse.org>);
The Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership brings together over 120 countries and institutions to share lessons learned and good practices in order to catalyse low-emission, climate-resilient development. Regional platforms in Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are pursuing several clean energy activities and the Energy Working Group has developed various resources and tools to support low-carbon planning for the energy sector (<http://ledsgp.org/sector/energy>);
The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), through collaboration with various institutions and initiatives, supports clean energy development around the world. In addition to direct project support, REEEP has developed several tools, resources and databases to support RE and energy efficiency (EE) policy design and implementation (<http://www.reeep.org/>);
United Nations initiative Sustainable Energy for All, through a global network of public and private institutions, has three key goals: providing universal access to modern energy services; doubling the global rate of improvement in EE; and doubling the share of RE in the global energy mix. The initiative supports flagship programmes to advance EE and country-level and high-impact actions. The main EE initiatives are coordinated under the so-called Global Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform (<http://www.se4all.org/>).
China and so far USA agreed and endorsed the Paris Agreement during the G-20 meeting in 09/2016
Source: United Nations – UNFCCC Studies & Reports – Dec. 2015